Wind farm testing and commissioning

This is a short (and incomplete) summary of the main test which are usually performed in a wind farm.

Test can be divided in 3 categories: factory tests, site tests and performance tests.

Some test are performed before the start of the construction works, others during construction and commissioning and others when the wind farm is completed and producing power during the defect liability period.

Factory tests

These tests, usually called FAT (Factory Acceptance Tests) are performed during the manufacturing of the WTGs and the other main equipment of the wind farm (such as the substation main transformer).

On the WTGs side, the most usual one are:

  • Test on towers (dimensional inspection, coating, non-destructive reports, etc.)
  • Electrical components (generator, transformer, converter system, etc.)
  • Mechanical components (gear box, yaw and pitch systems, etc.)

For the BoP, you will test at the very least the main transformer and possibly the MV cables.

Site acceptance tests

Site  acceptance tests can be divided in test on commissioning and test on completion.

The “commissioning” of a wind turbine is a setoff activities performed to confirm that the wind turbine has been correctly installed and it’s ready for energy production. You normally need to have  the grid connection to do the commissioning – this means that the wind farm substation (or the connection to the grid) should be ready.

A very long list of items is checked at this point. Some of the key ones are run test with the WTG connected and producing power, verification of protection systems, test of power measurements, plus many mechanical tests.

Basically, you want the turbine to work and produce many hours in a row (200, 300 or more) without faults. It can lead to delays if not enough wind is available to perform the test.

There is also a separate commissioning for the main  transformer, the substation (protection systems, power measure equipment, MV switchgear) and the cables.

Test on completions are usually for the full wind farm.

The whole system has to work without failures for many hours generating power. Among other things you want to confirm that the main transformer can evacuate correctly all the power without overheating, abnormal losses, etc..

SCADA system is assessed as well.

Performance test

This group include test like availability, power curve and acoustic noise level.

“Availability” of the whole wind farm is assessed.

Availability means that the wind farm (and each and every wind turbine) is operating for a relevant percentage of time (95%, 97% or even more depending on the contract).

Power curve is the relation between the wind and the output of the wind turbine. It is critical that the WTG produce as much as expected – otherwise the basic assumptions behind the business model of the project will be wrong.